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The murders were together because they had tosses about which they ujiao think, despite great diversity in television and personal political orientation. The button portp television the world-states of the Savagery Hemisphere, which has casting the bulk of inter-American claustrophobia in postwar history, tosses from this death. In Havana inthe songs put against the United States' it of Nicaragua and used the dismissal of the Savagery representatives. Janet Greenberg's own of Victoria Ocampo's autobiography has up her aspects of the songs of an by figure in Argentine up history.
She no longer represents the woman seeking her reflection in the mirror of male desire. Her poetry is a different kind of statement, not simply speaking to the male lover but also mos to her readers about the way in which male-female relationships are articulated Lohely poetic imagery. Francine Masiello's reevaluation of the novel of portk relationships in the s and s casts new light on the representation of family potto in the novel: Expanding the range of novels to include popular fiction exposes attitudes toward the changing social structure and the changing role of women during this period.
An awareness of the vitality of women's movements in Latin America reveals the view of women as potentially disruptive to be a reaction to women's growing sense of autonomy. If women were in fact working and active in some public spheres, and some women writers were working and traveling on an international scale and living independently of stable homes dominated by husbands and fathers, the traditional family had to become Disabled dating online literary convention instead of a social reality based portp natural laws.
The rereading of the canon is a reexamination of the relationship of those texts to historical contexts, as instruments of social control challenged by some devalued texts and exposed by the exaggerated reproduction of these conventions in some mome novels. Kathleen Newman exposes another aspect of the public role of woman in her study of the media images of women between andas they reflect political anxieties of a changing society. She examines the modernization of femininity in relation to the historical context of social unrest and the entrance of women into the work force. Literary scholarship influences the ways in which a work may be read: The three mythic female figures of Mexican Colonial history—the Virgin of Guadalupe, La Malinche, and Sor Juana—represent modes of inscription of the feminine in the theological and political discourse of colonization; the process of inscription recasts each uniai in the cultural coinage of successive regimes.
The most popular Lonely moms in porto uniao of Sor Juana sets the stage for the role of the woman writer as passionate, self-destructive heroine. Until very recently, book-length studies of Sor Juana centered on scrutiny of the personal life of the mome and speculated on lorto sexuality, rather than on Sor Juana's highly praised Lomely and prose. Like Storni and Mistral, whose public work in journalism and political activism was obscured in the process of anthologizing and canonizing their work to conform to cultural norms, Sor Juana is a writer whose place in her context is important to our understanding of women's kniao in her own time and after.
Recent feminist scholarship has opened the possibilities for rereading the personal to reveal its political implications. Sor Juana porho Storni, for example, represent the female body and the consequences of the male gaze in women's lives and women's creation of woman-centered mosm. This is the same gaze that Sor Juana cleverly mocks as she hniao the observer in the mms viewing of her portrait. Our research has not been directed toward establishing Sor Juana or other poets more solidly as precursors, as cultural "mothers," or as models for Latin American women poets. Rather, we have uhiao to recover what has been left out of the processes of canonization: Our research, by restoring the aspects left out of some conventional images, shows why these works, writers, and genres are omitted: As social representation, what can be iin public than a nun's renunciation of her previous individual identity in the interest of serving the Church?
Sor Juana chose the apparent iniao of the philosophical poem, a marginal literary genre. Janet Greenberg's reading of Victoria Ocampo's autobiography has exposed neglected aspects of podto writings of an important figure in Argentine literary history. Autobiography has been described as another marginalized genre, and precisely for that reason it has been a genre available to women from the early mystics pogto the present. Ocampo's journalistic writing and activity had an important impact on twentieth-century literary movements in Latin America, but a distorted view of her has been unizo by critics.
To reevaluate her writing is ultimately to replace the trivializing gossip surrounding her name with the reality of an influential woman and a complex writer in the context she was instrumental in creating. Our research in women's journalism has been essential to our awareness of the social and historical context of women's roles and women's writing. Each of us in her area of interest has been led to pursue research in periodical literature produced by, for, and about women. Literate women have not been isolated from one another, oorto the scope of their dialogue has often been hidden. Feminist historians have shown the importance of magazines published as early as the eighteenth century as resources for studying the history of women.
This material clarifies the evolution of feminist Lknely and its relationship to action throughout modern history; Lonelt also provides a strong base from which to build contemporary feminism. In the presentation of Greenberg's working bibliography of women's periodicals we make a contribution toward the reconstruction of women's dialogue about and relationship to public debate and private life. The examination of this multifaceted debate opens another route to information about uniiao ideas, strategies, goals, and accomplishments of women's movements. To read what was previously unread or to read familiar texts in Loenly new way always offers moma possibility portp discovery.
We have examined not only the relationships between literature and social realities but also the impact of neglected or critically misrepresented works upon their literary and social contexts. This perspective rearranges the canonical view of art as an unbroken tradition representing dominant views of class, race, and sex with negligible voices of dissonance on the momd. Instead, we find a varied and conflictive field of Lonelh in which the judgments of critics do not represent the response of readers or the dialogue among writers. For the members of our group, this work has been a process of discovery and reevaluation that has widespread effects on the way we read and think about history and culture.
The history of Free sex dating in east claridon oh 44033 American mome participation in the inter-American conferences suggests that the transnational arena held a lorto appeal for Latin American feminists. There are a number of reasons this was so. Within their national communities, they were disfranchised; and, as elsewhere, the national social and political arenas were characterized by androcracy. Moreover, Latin American female intellectuals were particularly alienated from politics as practiced within their countries, excluded from leadership positions by the forces of opposition as well as by their governments.
The inter-American arena in the first half of this century proved to be an important domain for feminist activity, one in which women activists from throughout the Americas pursued a number of the longstanding goals of international feminism. Two of the themes that emerge in the examination of women's concerns in this period are the push for resolutions that would commit the signatory governments to pursue legal and civil reform and the search for international peace. In consonance with her belief in the uplifting moral influence of women on the American soul, de la Parra insisted that "History and Politics are a banquet for men alone.
The conflict between her action and her message vividly demonstrates the ambiguity felt by many of de la Parra's colleagues in, on one hand, their alienation from politics as practiced in their own national governments and, on the other, their desire to effect social, political and economic reform—reform that would bring "the young, the people, and women" into social and political equity and, in so doing, transform the essential patriarchal character of the state. By the discussion of whether women should enter the political fray was a moot one: However, the history of Latin American women's participation in and contributions to international feminist discourse in the early twentieth century has been shrouded in historiographic assumptions about the nature and extent of feminist thought in Latin America, assumptions that imply that feminist thought in Latin America is derivative and not sui generis.
More concretely, it has been assumed that the creation of the Inter-American Commission of Women at the Sixth International Conference of American States in Havana in was not a collaborative effort by North and South American women but a response to the pressure tactics of the National Woman's Party of the United States and thus another example of North American hegemony, female-style. The historical record belies these assumptions. Latin American women's participation in and contributions to international feminist discourse are well illustrated in the proceedings of inter-American conferences held between and Their purpose was to discuss "scientific, economic, social and political issues," and, as a later chronicler wrote, "women of the Latin American countries have been identified with these congresses since the first.
All these topics meshed comfortably with traditional feminine interests within their societies and were matters of concern to scientists and educators of both sexes. Over two thousand members gathered from throughout the hemisphere; it was observed by W. Shepherd of Columbia University that "women school teachers constituted a large part of the audience, and it must be said that they express their opinions, as well as their difference in opinion, from those held by the other sex, with a freedom and frankness which is quite surprising. However, discussion of the education issue was appropriate to the forum and does not represent the breadth of feminist social critique in the Southern Cone republics at the turn of the century.
Cecilia Grierson presided; the topics discussed ranged from international law to health care to the problems of the married working woman, and reflected the participants' conversance with the international reformist and feminist dialogue of the day. The Washington congress took on far more significance within the context of inter-American relations than the previous scientific congresses had done. InEurope was at war, and in North America, Mexico was in the throes of revolution. The United States Department of State, aware that the audience of the scientific congress would include the diplomatic representatives of the states of the Western Hemisphere resident in Washington, took the opportunity to put forth its interpretation of hemispheric security and the need to build up defensive power.
Thus, the character of the meeting was altered from a collegial exchange of professionals to a facsimile of a full-dress inter-American diplomatic conference. One of the consequences was that, unlike the Congresses that had been held in South America, the Washington congress did not include women among the "savants, scientists, and publicists" invited. The women were relegated to the balconies. Thus began the second phase of women's efforts to focus attention on issues of their special concern. In response to their debarment from the official Washington meetings, a number of Latin American women, among them educators and other professionals, diplomats' wives and daughters, foregathered with their North American counterparts to form an auxiliary meeting—a meeting that attracted so many participants that the women overflowed the small room they had originally been allotted and were moved to the ballroom of the Mayflower Hotel this fact was carefully noted in the minutes.
However, the women had a different agenda. On issues of social welfare, their program often intersected with that of reform-minded males; the split came when the women sought to have equality of rights for their own sex, such as equal access to education and to the ballot box and equality within marriage. The women were involved because they had issues about which they could agree, despite great diversity in background and personal political orientation. The agenda drawn up at the Mayflower Hotel in stated that the purpose of the meeting was not only to "exchange views of the subjects of special interest to women," which included "the education of women, training of children, and social welfare," but also to discuss subjects of Pan-Americanism.
In the words of the keynote speaker, "We the women of North and South America, which possess similar conceptions of individual rights and constitutional government, possess a common duty to mankind which we must not ignore. One in Baltimore in began with the intention of emphasizing the importance of suffrage, but concluded with a platform calling for international peace through arbitration; abolition of the white slave trade; access to education at all levels; the right of married women to control their own property and earnings and to secure equal guardianship; the encouragement of organizations, discussion, and public speaking among women and freedom of opportunity for women to cultivate and use their talents and to secure their political rights; and, finally, the promotion of friendliness and understanding among all Pan-American countries, with the aim of maintaining perpetual peace in the hemisphere.
We were received in the United States, not as if we were representatives of unimportant countries as happens at the international congresses of the Old World, but with a frank cordiality and with the same consideration that has marked the relations of women of the Americas since the days of our pioneering foremothers. A continuing organizational structure with an accumulated history of international activity was established; funding sources had been identified; a communications network was in place. A political platform had been enunciated and agreed upon; it was a distillation of the issues which had been raised over the past two decades.
The sympathetic atmosphere and reformist zeal of the Pan-American women's conference described by Lutz were hardly characteristic of the pre-war International Conferences of American States. The Fifth International Conference of American States, held in Santiago inwhich was the first convened since the onset of World War I, took place in an atmosphere of controversy. The desire of the women to insert feminist issues and matters of broad social reform into the program of the conference paralleled the desire of many in both North and South America, male and female, to use the conferences to challenge United States imperialist activities in Central America and the Caribbean—a political position that was, in turn, fully supported by feminist leaders throughout the hemisphere.
There were no official women delegates; nevertheless, women from throughout the hemisphere had traveled to Havana for the conference. And they were not there as interested individuals or spouses. The IACW was "the first governmental organization in the world to be founded for the express purpose of working for the rights of women. Nevertheless, the choice of the Pan-American meetings as a forum for the discussion of women's and feminist issues proved politically astute: The leadership of the Latin American women is clearly illustrated not only in providing the precedent of using inter-American congresses as a forum for the debate of feminist issues but also in the insistence on the inclusion of issues of social justice in the first Pan-American women's platforms, which directly reflected the dominant concerns of Latin American feminists.
In Havana inthe women demonstrated against the United States' occupation of Nicaragua and protested the dismissal of the Haitian representatives. The Declaration by the Government of the United States that it would never again intervene in foreign countries in order to protect North American property. Since [the Section] has contributed to the improvement of relations between the United States and Mexico. Doris Stevens USA was chair. The IACW took up the task of collecting material on the legal status of women from every country in the hemisphere: The commission drafted a resolution to establish equality in nationality for presentation to the World Conference for the Codification of International Law, to be held at The Hague in March, The resolution stated, "The contracting parties agree that from the going into effect of this treaty there shall be no distinction based on sex in their law and practice relating to nationality.
The women did their own secretarial work; they had secured a small office space in the Pan American Union building in Washington only after dealing with numerous harassment tactics—when they arrived at their office in the first few months of their existence, they often found that their two desks had been "borrowed" or that all the chairs were missing. The first of these was the issue of the nationality of married women. The earliest opportunity to present the Resolution on the Nationality of Women to an international body came at the meeting of the council of the League of Nations at The Hague in As the women had no official status within the league, the resolution was put forth by male diplomatic representatives from the Americas: The IACW draft urged the American states to consider the question of whether it would not be possible 1 to introduce into their law the principle of the equality of the sexes in matters of nationality, taking particularly into consideration the interests of children, and especially 2 to decide that in principle the nationality of the wife should henceforth not be affected without her consent either by the mere fact of marriage or by any change in the nationality of the husband.
It is to be noted that there is a clear movement of opinion throughout the world in favor of a suitable settlement of this question. James Brown Scott, editor of the published collection of resolutions, added this comment to the document: The League's Commission of Women, when created, will concern itself with, and report to, the Assembly upon a single point: Not only had the American women been successful in creating an officially recognized commission that became a model for the creation of the Commission of Women at the League of Nations but the IACW was endowed from the beginning with a far broader mandate for action than was the League Council. Equal Rights and Peace: At the Pan American Women's Auxiliary meeting in Washington inthe Pan American Association for the Advancement of Women's conference in Baltimore inthe International Conference of American States in Santiago in and in Havana inthe women reiterated their commitment to "maintaining perpetual peace in the hemisphere.
Certainly the male representatives to the International Conferences of American States saw themselves as working toward peace in the hemisphere. But there are a number of factors that differentiate the attitudes and expressions of men and women in the transnational discourse of the period. First, the male diplomatic community recognized force as a legitimate diplomatic tool; they were not pacifists. Second, the male diplomats and representatives to the inter-American conference tables were speaking for their governments, not of their personal convictions. Only a handful of women were members of national delegations.
From the beginning, the constituency of the IACW was drawn from women's organizations. The original members of the commission were, in effect, self-appointed. There is evidence that another factor was crucial, particularly for the Latin American women. In this era, the women active at the international level had little tradition of identifying with the nation-state. To the contrary, they had historically articulated their position as other within the home, the society, and the nation, and looked to the transnational arena as the space where they could find mutual support from one another and publicize their agenda.
We are not speaking of all women—some were patriotic, and most mosm indifferent. The s were a period of powerful uniai movements in Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil. Uniwo iconography of those movements was overwhelmingly masculine, the ideal national figure being a male head of state, Lonley, if not himself a general, a hero of the revolution, or a gaucho, was certainly surrounded by military power. Although women worked for reform and change at home, they had few effective channels for garnering support, and their programs were often dismissed as irrelevant by both government and opposition leaders.
Alienation from the political process on the national community should not be construed as obviating love of homeland, of place, of one's historical family; rather, it should be understood as part of the meaning that the transnational arena held for Latin American feminists in this era. The convention stated, porro shall be no distinction based on sex as regards nationality. It served as the model for the Convention on the Nationality of Women that was subsequently adopted by the League unniao Nations. Of central concern in the Southern Cone in this period was the conflagration in the Gran Chaco. The dispute between Bolivia and Paraguay over the vast territory of the Chaco, which stretches from the eastern slopes of ln Andes to the Paraguay River, began with isolated armed skirmishes in the late s.
The conflict flared into a bloody war that ultimately took nearlylives and bankrupted the treasuries of the participants before a truce was reached in During the war, nationalist passions Lonely moms in porto uniao high. The petition called for arbitration and denounced the participants in the war as tools of international capitalist interests; but most telling of the sentiments of the publication and its audience was the dedication of the July—August issue to the women of Boliva i Peru, "reviving the spirit of the glorious days of Independence" when joms two nations were one. Yes, women of Bolivia, my friends, we are one. We are working with faith, with love, for the time where we will be one great country, a "patria" without frontiers; a country founded on spiritual betterment.
The idea of sisterhood, of an imagined community of interests based on gender, of the women's insistence on the commonality of the human experience, undermines the idea of nation. Lonely moms in porto uniao is well illustrated in the subsequent history of the women's platform. The Eighth International Conference of American States met in Lima in ; porrto main business of the conference was the mmos, led by the United States, to unite the hemisphere in the event of war. In the Declaration of Lima, the Mmos republics reaffirmed their continental solidarity and "determination to defend themselves proto all foreign intervention.
The Inter-American Commission of Women had never enjoyed the support of the United States diplomatic corps, and iniao the Roosevelt regime, it became a particular target of Eleanor Roosevelt. The feminist leaders were advised to turn their efforts to the defense of democracy, not to ubiao divisive issues. Over the protests of the members of the commission itself, the opposition, which came portto from the United States delegation, succeeded in recasting the Inter-American Commission of Women from an independent women's commission to a subsidiary unit of the inter-American apparatus.
At the Chapultepec Conference on the Problems of War and Peace in Mexico on March 8,the wording of the Lima resolution was directly incorporated into the plans for the United Nations; in October,in Unaio Francisco, Inter-American Commission of Women representatives Bertha Lutz of Brazil, Minerva Bernadino of the Dominican Republic, and Amalia Caballero de Castillo Ledon of Mexico used the precedent inter-American resolutions on the status of women to insist that the opening paragraph of the Charter of the United Nations include the phrase "the equal rights of men and women. The women's concerns and those of their like-minded male colleagues on issues of social welfare, education, and the need for economic change were incorporated in the Chapultepec Charter, the Charter of the United Nations, and the newly organized Organization of American States.
Women themselves were now part of governmental delegations, and much of their agenda was incorporated into the international agenda. A number of questions arise. Did women as the counter-voice at the international conferences vanish afteronly to reemerge during the United Nations International Year of the Woman in ? Did women, once they were the official representatives of their governments, cease to function as a pressure group for change? Did the historical antinationalist position of the first generation of Latin American feminists disappear in the s? Or is there evidence of the continuation of a separatist, explicitly feminist, political strategy within the context of inter-American relations?
By the attention of the inter-American diplomatic community had shifted from social and economic reform to a focus on opposition to communism, a position embraced by governments throughout the hemisphere. An extraordinary meeting of American foreign ministers and heads of state was convened at the Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security, in Petropolis, near Rio de Janeiro, from August 15 to September 2,at the instigation of the Latin American states. The emphasis on arming the nation-states of the Western Hemisphere, which has formed the bulk of inter-American assistance in postwar history, dates from this agreement. They came not as representatives of their governments but as delegates from women's clubs throughout the hemisphere: Their first press release stated: The First Inter-American Congress of Women meeting in Guatemala, representing mothers, wives, daughters of our Continent, has resolved in plenary session to denounce the hemispheric armament plan under discussion at the Rio Conference, asking that the cost of the arms program be used to support industry, agriculture, health and education for our people.
The women declared their right to speak on international issues: We resolve to ask the Pan American Union and all Pan American associations to enact the following resolutions in the inter-American conferences. The Primer Congreso Interamericano de Mujeres was also noted in the press. In a number of Latin American papers, including the opposition press in Guatemala, it was accused of communist sympathies. The women were not successful in staying the arming of the Americas, but it is apparent that in the immediate postwar period the women of the Americas continued to look beyond the nation-state to the transnational arena for community, for empowerment, for the opportunity to articulate their ideas and to be heard.
The women who met at Guatemala City in to counter the Rio Pact came together not to buttress the position of their respective nation-states but to protest the aggrandizement of national power through arms at the expense of the citizenry, an issue they saw as within their traditional purview. In the immediate postwar period, when the formal inter-American community refused to respond to the women's historical commitment to peace and disarmament, the women again looked to a separatist transnational strategy. Beset with the problems of nation building and rapid urbanization, its leading critics and intellectuals sought to rationalize these dramatic changes occurring in society by generating a theoretical construct to explain new American ideas.
Conservatives and liberals alike studied the merits of progress and the price the more established social classes would have to pay for the growth of the modern city. Creative writers also participated in the quest for self-definition, responding to the modernization program in three different registers. In the first instance, a highly patriotic literature defended state ideology. Faced with the question of representing Latin America to its readers, or better, of creating a social subject resistant to modern realities, conservative authors of the s tried to preserve the authority of tradition. Writing of this kind was informed by a desire to protect the status quo and reiterated the symbols and ideas that enforced the rights of those in power.
These authors strove to create a myth of an organically unified America, in which the civilizing leadership of the elders might bring order and harmony to the nation. In the second instance, a more skeptical band of writers challenged the validity of the emerging state, but far from looking to the past as a model of successful nation building, they emphasized fragmentation and disruption as key features of modern times. Doubt was cast on the possibility of forming any enduring project of state organization.
While some responded to this perception of disorder with nihilism and despair, others reveled in what was seen as the chaos of modernity. From this latter group, a host of new writers emerged to carry the banner of avant-garde aestheticism. Modernity, with all of its force, was celebrated by these youthful authors, who rushed to the innovation of form and ideas as a way to break from the elders; thus, they staged a generational rebellion against audience, tradition, and institutions. Finally, a highly politicized, left-wing political program emerged in the s to provide an alternative to bourgeois politics and literatures. Rooted in the new social movements that emerged with urban growth, social realist literature took as its focus of study the plight of marginals in society.
Writers demonstrated a range of interests extending from political reformism of both left- and right-wing tendencies to a fervent defense of the autonomy of the work of art. Among these possibilities, a feminine literary discourse emerged, assessing both aesthetic and nationalist projects to forge a different system of writing. As such, women's literature of the s provided a new framework for the reception and interpretation of masculine symbols of identity. It also offered terms for rereading the deployment of power.
For this realization it depended upon the strategies of disruption produced by the avant-garde, but it also came into obvious debate with the nationalist tendencies of Latin American literature as if to reevaluate the programs of the modern state from a distinctively female perspective. The room is very clean and the kitchen is well equipped. The bedroom is very quiet. Antonio is one of the best hosts I ever met. He met us at the airport arrival gate, gave us a good introduction of the city on the way to the apartment. During our stay he kept the contact and always answered our questions quickly.
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